From “Indio” to Filipino

From “Indio” to Filipino

Lapulapu of Mactan (1521) and Dagami of Cebu(1567)- first Filipinos to refuse to bow under Spanish yoke.

Categories of Revolution

Personal Motives

Lakandula and Soliman

-Revolted in 1574

“Conspiracy of the Maharlikas”(1578-88)

-Led by kin-related datus of Manila

-When caught, they were dragged on hurdles to the gallows, hanged, decapitated, and exposed in iron cages, as a grim warning against the crime.

– Their severed heads were stuck on pikes place in wicker baskets for public exhibition.

Tamblot of Bohol(1621-22)

-an outlawed babaylan.

-employed magic and religion in alluring the people to abandon Christianity and to return to their former beliefs.

-he promised that “mountains would rise against their foe; that the muskets of the latter would not go off or rebound on those who fired them; that if any Indian would die, the diwatas would resuscitate gim.”

-he was crushed by Juan de Alcarazo(alcalde mayor of Cebu) with a number of men.

Bankaw of Carigara(Leyte)

-Datu of Limasawa

-Like tamblot, they used magic to attract devotees. Saying that they could petrify the Spaniards and that woman or child could easily change the enemies by simply hurling bits of earth on them.

-Alcarazo killed Bankaw and his severed head was impaled on a bamboo stake and publicly displayed it as a warning.

Dagohoy of Bohol

-a cabeza de barangay of Bohol

– longest revolt in the Philippine history taking 85 years (1744-1829)

-one of the causes of this revolt is forced labor but when Fr. Gaspar Morales refused to give his brother(Sagarino) a Christian burial, it triggered his revolt.

-He proclaimed “Free Bohol” in Inabangan and Talibon mountains and refused the unjust payment of tribute and rendering of forced labor.

– he died without seeing the end of the uprising which he successfully initiated.

As in other revolts elsewhere, this was a consequence of the realization of the Filipinos that the Spanish might was weak, as proved by their humiliating defeat with the fall of Manila in September 1762.

Religious Motives

The continuous Hispanization of the Filipinos through religion was in line with Spain’s policy of “Gospel, Gold and Glory.”

Miguel Lanab and Alababan of Capinatan(Apayao)

Revolted in June 1625

They mutilated and beheaded the Dominicans Fr. Alonzo Garcia and Brother Onofre Palao.

Fr. Garcia was cut to pieces and his flesh thrown to the pigs.

they compelled the Isnegs to go with them to the mountains, set fire to the churches, desecrate the images and loot properties.

In 1626, a Spanish punitive force wasdispatched to check the Isneg uprising. A great number of palms were destroyed by the cruel Spaniards to starve the Isnegs and forced them to surrender.


  • A newly Christianized babaylan in Oton, Iloilo.
  • Proclaimed himself “God Almighty” and who “went about in the garb of a woman.”
  • In 1663, they killed Fr. Francisco de Mesa, burned the house and church, and fled to the mountains.
  • The Spaniards captured the leaders and were killed.

Francisco Rivera (Tuguegarao)

  • A visionary who appropriated for himself the title of “Papa Rey” (Pope and King)
  • He, together with his believers, “deprived all the citizens and dependents of the Church” the freedom of worship by instructing his adherents to give back the rosaries,scapularies, and other religious objects to the Dominicans.
  • He was described as “the only rebel chief with anti-religiousideas”
  • His believers got tired of his “irreligious and despotic” rule, and desired to kill him.
  • This uprising was stopped by Juan Pablo Orduña who came from Vigan.

►Hermano Apolinario de la Cruz

  • His revolt could be divided into two phases:
  • Phase I from the founding of the Cofradia de San Jose to the death of De la Cruz. (1832-1841)
    • In Dec. 1832, Ermano Pule with the Filipino secular priest(Br. Ciriaco de los Santos) and 19 others, founded the cofradia centering around the cults of San Francisco and the famous brown image of Our Lady of Peace and Good Voyage of Antipolo.
    • 5 years later, this was renamed as Cofradia del Sr. San Jose i voto del Santisimo Rosario.
    • The confradia met mothly on the 19th day, paying a monthly fee of one real (12 ½ centavos) and rice.
    • The confradia’s existence was unknown to the Spanish authorities until 1840.
    • In 1841, members were arrested and Ermano Pule was captures and shot to death. His body was quartered; his severed head was hung in front of their house, and his two hands and two feet, were hung inside a cage and placed in the guardhouses.
  • Phase II the revival of Cofradia to the capture of Januario Labios. (1870-71)
    • The Cofradia reappeared on Corpus Christi day in 1870, by Br. Florentino Tuason.
    • Members were not allowed to hear mass in a Catholic Church.
    • Members were also instructed not to be wedded by Catholic priests, but by their own priest called “Profeta y Pontifice”
    • The 3 families of Labios, Enriquez and Cordero, initiated the rebirth of the confraternity.
    • The Confradia died with the capture of Labios and his adherents.

Resistance to Spanish-Imposed Institutions

►Magalat (chief in tuguegarao)

  • The opposition to the unlawful tribute collection motivated the Cagayanons to revolt.

Eastern Mindanao (1629-31)

  • Unjust collection of tribute in kind.
  • Boatloads of rice were taken in the encomiendas for a 30-year period, with town priest acting as official tribute collector.

Juan Ponce Sumodoy and Pedro Caamug

  • Leader of the uprising that spread as far as the Bikol region, central Visayas and northern Mindanao.
  • This was a reaction to Gov. Diego Fajardo’s order of shifting recruitment of the tiresome polo y servicios personales from Luzon to Visayas.
  • The Spaniards captured Sumodoy’s mother, dragged her and threw her over a cliff.
  • Sumodoy’s head was presented to the alcalde mayor.


  • Led the Itawis and Gaddangs in the middle Cagayan to rise up in arms against the authorities in 1718, organized a force of 3,000 men to oust the hated alcalde mayor.
  • Magtangaga’s revolt failed.

Juan Caragay (1719 in Pangasinan)

  • A man of very low birth
  • Strengthened by the dictatorial acts of the alcalde mayor who used force in the unlawful collection of tribute and draft labor.
  • He murdered the provincial governor.
  • He was killed by the reinforcements from Dagupan and Binmaley headed by Juan Ramos, marshal-of-camp of Mangaldan, dominated by “Igorots” who chopped off Caragay’s head with just one stroke.

In 1750’s Pangasinan experienced destructive floods and poor harvest, which was further aggravated by the personal excesses of the alcalde mayor, Joaquin Gamboa.

Juan de la Cruz Palaris

  • Led a rebellion in 1762 against Gamboa’s personal excesses.
  • In the end, Palaris was betrayed by his own sister to the town gobernadorcillo and was hanged.
  • Receiving the gravest penalty, he was quartered pig-style, with his distorted head, hands, feet and gouged heart publicly exhibited at the six bridge of Binalatongan to strike terror among people.

►Diego Silang

  • Opposed the exaction of the comun(annual tribute of one real fuerte), drafting of polistas, and other dishonest practices of the new alcalde mayor, Antonio Zabala.
  • He headed revolt in 1762.
  • He joined forces with the British.
  • He was killed on May 1763 with a musket through his back by Pedro Buecbuec an ex-confidant of Silang.
  • Eventually, his wife ,Maria Josefa Gabriela de Silang,”the first woman to lead a revolt in the Philippines,”
  • She was then executed on Sept. 20, 1763.

Two essential monopolized items, tobacco and basi, especially important among the poorer class of Filipinos, sparked the Lagutao revolt, the Samal Mutiny, and the Ambaristo or basi revolt.

Lagutao and Baladdon

  • Led the revolt in Ituy and Paniqui, bringing along with them back to the hills newly- converted Christians.
  • On the last day of March, Lagutao presented himself to his followers as their liberator from the Spanish impositions of the tobacco monopoly,tribue and tithes which had been progressively increased yearly.
  • Lagutaos’ party was hunted, and in the struggle killed the leader, his brother, son-in-law, and eleven others, capturing besides 81 men, women, youths, and children.

Lt. Andres Magtanong and Sub-Lt. Francisco Malibiran

  • As a reaction to the introduction of the estanco, they killed the teniente visitador and the tobacco monopoly guards.
  • Their families’ properties were confiscated, the mutineers were hanged, their bodies quartered, and their heads put on stakes for public display.

Ilocano Military escaped from Vigan to Piddig

  • July 1807
  • Against the oppressive monopoly of spirituous liquors introduced in 1786, which included the control of making basi.
  • Also known as the “Ambaristo” revolt.
  • The revolt failed, with the rebels summarily hanged and their bodies mutilated.
  1. Peasant Unrest

► Tagalog Revolt

  • tagalog regions were marked by peasant unrest which started in the hacienda town of Cavite, spreading to the provinces nearby
  • the maginoos of Silang doubted the land surveys which take a large portion of the communal lands.
  • The lands were unjustly awarded to the Chinese and mestizo tenants of the Dominican-owned friar estate of Biñan.
  • “land grows each year”
  • Principales of Silang
    • They assaulted the controversial hacienda
    • Destroyed the granaries and houses.
  • The tagalog revolt failed and leaders were killed or exiled.

Luis de los Santos (Parang) and Juan Silvestre (Juan Upay)

  • Tagged as a “reunion of bandits”
  • Forced labor and exaction of tribute in the form of firewood aggravated the already tense situation.
  • Tulisanes(bandits) were troubled peasants because they are dependent on the lands dispossessed by the uldogs(hacienda lay-admin.)

Casimiro Camerino

  • El Tulisan”
  • He was granted amnesty and became the colonel of the force called Compañia de Guias de la Provincia de Cavite”.

The Moro Resistance

►Moro Wars

  • Starting with the reestablishment of Fort Pilar in Zamboanga(1718), the Spaniards failed to conquer the Moros(1750s)
  • Iranuns and Maranaos begun their harsh ravaging pillages in Visayas
  • Thousands of Christians were captured resulting in the decimation of population in Visayas.
  • Moro Raids
    • In revenge for Spanish acts of reducing Moro captives to slavery and destroying their homes.
  • 1876, Jolo surrendered to Spain, and the “Moro Wars” was carried out mainly through the juramentado or sabil allah ritual suicide attacks.

Failure of the Revolts

  • Philippine is an archipelago.
  • No Lingua Franca.
    • The friars refused to teach and promote their language among the Filipinos.
    • They were afraid that if a Filipino who knew a Castilian language would become better educated, therefore, a future rebellion or a filibustero.

Filipino Nationalism: Decelerators

Louis L. Snyder defines Nationalism as: a condition of mind, feeling or sentiment of a group of people in a well-defined geographical area, speaking a common language, possessing a literature in which aspirations of the nation have been expressed, being attached to common traditions, and, in some cases, having a common religion.

  • People called Filipinos applied only to the Spaniards born in the Philippines, and the indigenes were derogatorily called indios.
  • Indios were not united in words and in deeds.
  • “Indios” became a “Filipino” only during the last years of the Spanish government in the late 1890s.
  • The divide et impera(divide and rule) colonial policy.
  • Primitive strategies in war and weaponry.
  • Spanish priests

Filipino Nationalism: Accelerators

Opening of the Philippines to World Commerce

  • Manila proper and the suburban areas permanently opened their port to international trade.
  • With the opening of these ports succeed greater demands for export crops.
  • Mail service between Manila and Cavite started.
  • Travelers in Manila made reservations at the Hotel de Oriente
  • Banking facilities were transacted at the Banco Español-Filipino de Isabel II, the first Phil. Bank.
  • First daily newspaper appeared.

►Rise of the clase media

  • a middle class of Asian and Eurasian mestizos
  • Emerged from the economic boom derived from expanded agriculture and commerce.
  • Formed the town principilia, an elite social group composed of gobernadorcillos and minor native bureaucrats.
  • Pre-nineteenth century, only the Spaniards and their Filipino wives, permanent domestics and their carriage drivers could live within the confines of the walled city (Intramuros).
  • Outside the walls (extramuros) were the Filipino, Chinese mestizo
  • Tondo was describes as “all slums” ; major residential area of Filipino clase pobre :the lower class.

►Impact of European liberalism and the administration of Carlos de la Torre

  • According to Pardo de Tavera, but “modern ideas of liberty began to penetrate the minds of the natives.”
  • John Locke in his “Two Treatise on Government” suggested that the social contract between the king, who did not exercise absolute powers, and his subjects, means that if the king failed to do his duty and did not respond to natural rights, his subjects had the right to overthrow him.
  • Glorious September Revolution of 1868
    • The arrival of the liberal Goevernor De la Torre.
    • Motto: “Los hijos de los leones son tambien leones” (“Lion cubs are also Lions”)
    • De la Torre was disliked by the Spaniards of Manila.
    • He abolished press espionage and proclaimed freedom of speech.
    • He instructed to intercept, mails coming from prominent Filipino leaders and priest.
    • he was responsible for the arrest and imprisonment of the student leader of Juventud Escolar Liberal.

►Racial discrimination

  • The intensity of animosities between the Filipinos and Spaniards, especially the friars, reached the highest point with the Reform Movement.
  • Anti-Filipino writers wrote hurtful literature belittling the Filipinos.
  • Filipinos were maligned and degraded as “neither a merchant nor an industrial, neither a farmer nor a philosopher”
  • “logical that the Indians, in their immense majority should receive, from friars and seculars, the epithet of chongos”
  • Fr. Miguel Lucio y Bustamante:
    • Filipino could neverlearn the Spanish language or be civilized.
    • “The Spaniards will always be a Spaniard, and the indio will always be an indio… The monkey will always be amonkey however you dress him with shirt and trousers, and will always be a monkey and not a human.”
  • Fr. Gaspar de San Agustin:
    • “God created the indios together with the rattan” meaning that the Filipinos “need beatings and the rattan.”

►Effects of the secular-regular conflicts

►Cavite mutiny of 1872

Source: History of the Filipino People by Teodoro A. Agoncillo


17 thoughts on “From “Indio” to Filipino

  1. thanks…i dont have to worry for my prelim exam…because of this..all the discussions of my prof is all in here..:)

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